To learn about bankruptcy in Canada, start with the Office of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy Canada home page. The key resource for you is the declaring bankruptcy page, which outlines the steps a debtor needs to take to file for bankruptcy in Canada. If you are a debtor, be sure to review the resources for debtors page.
In Canada, the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (R.S., 1985, c. B-3) covers the law of bankruptcy. The BIA makes references to foreign corporations filing for bankruptcy, but I could find no laws concerning a requirement for a private person to be residing in Canada as a condition of filing bankruptcy. I hasten to add that I am not a Canadian lawyer, and you should consult with a Canadian lawyer who has experience in bankruptcy for a more precise answer.
To learn more about the relationship between US and Canadian credit reports, see the Bills.com resource Canada Credit Report.
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