- 6 min read
Foreclosure Laws For All US States
A lender may foreclose when a home loan borrower fails to make the agreed upon payments. The table below outlines the basic rules for each state. An explanation of each column follows the table.
If you face foreclosure, see the Bills.com no-recourse/anti-deficiency state law page to learn if you may have liability for any deficiency balance as a result of a foreclosure.
|Foreclosure||Typical Default to Foreclosure Period (days)||Publication of Sale Period (days)||Redemption||Laws|
|Alabama||Both||Non-Judicial||49-74||21||1 year||Alabama Code Section 35-10|
|Alaska||Both||Non-Judicial||105||65||Non-judicial, Yes. Judicial, No.||Alaska Statutes Chapter 09.45. Actions Relating To Real Property and Title 34, Ch. 20, Section 100|
|Arizona||Both||Non-Judicial||90+||41||Non-judicial, no. Judicial, Yes 30-180 days.||Arizona State Code Title 33 - Property in 33-814.G and 33-729.A.|
|Arkansas||Both||Non-Judicial||70||30||Judicial, 1 year. Non-judicial, no.||Arkansas Code Title 18 - Property Subtitle 4 - Mortgages And Liens|
|California||Both||Non-Judicial||180||21-365||No||California Civil Code § 2920-2944.7 and Code Civ. Proc. § 580b|
|Colorado||Both||Non-Judicial||145||60||75 days||Colorado Foreclosure Protection Act and Colorado Revised Statutes|
|Connecticut||Judicial||62||None||Strict foreclosure, yes, at court's discretion.||General Statutes of Connecticut 49-14 and 49-28|
|Delaware||Judicial||170-210||60-90||No||Delaware Code Title 10, Ch. 49:XI|
|District of Columbia||Non-Judicial||47||18||No||District of Columbia Code Title 42, Subtitle I, Ch. 8|
|Florida||Judicial||135||None||Limited||Florida Statutes Title 40, Ch. 702|
|Georgia||Both||Non-Judicial||37||32||No||Official Code of Georgia Title 44, Ch. 14|
|Hawaii||Both||Non-Judicial||220||60||No||Hawaii Revised Statutes § 667-5 and § 667-38|
|Idaho||Both||Non-Judicial||150||45||1 year for more than 20 acres||Idaho Statutes Title 45, Ch. 15, Section 45.12|
|Illinois||Judicial||300||None||90 days||Illinois Compiled Statutes Ch. 735, Article XV|
|Indiana||Judicial||261||120||No||Indiana Code § 32-29-7|
|Iowa||Judicial||160||30||Limited||Iowa Ch. 654.6|
|Kansas||Judicial||130||21||1 year||Kansas Statutes Ch. 60, 2417|
|Kentucky||Judicial||147||None||Yes, 1 year if residence sells for less than two-thirds of the appraised value.||Kentucky Revised Statutes Ch. 426|
|Louisiana||Judicial||180||None||No||Louisiana Code Title 10:9-629|
|Maine||Judicial||240||30||90 days||Revised Maine Statutes Title 14, Part 4, Ch. 403|
|Maryland||Both||Non-Judicial||46||30||Court discretion||Maryland Rules Title 14, Ch. 200|
|Massachusetts||Both||Non-Judicial||75||41||No||General Laws of Massachusetts Ch. 244|
|Michigan||Both||Non-Judicial||60||30||6 months following non-judicial||Michigan Compiled Laws Act 210 of 1933; and EPIC Act 236, Sections 600 and 700|
|Minnesota||Both||Non-Judicial||90-100||7||6-12 months||Minnesota Statute 582|
|Mississippi||Both||Non-Judicial||90||30||No||Mississippi State Code § 89-1-305|
|Missouri||Both||Non-Judicial||60||10||1 year||Missouri Revised Statutes Ch. 141 §400-590|
|Montana||Both||Non-Judicial||150||50||No||Montana Code Annotated Title 71, Ch. 1|
|Nebraska||Both||Non-Judicial||142||None||No||Nebraska Revised Statutes Ch. 76-1013|
|Nevada||Both||Non-Judicial||116||80||No in non-judicial. Yes in judicial||Nevada Revised Statutes Chapters 40, and 106, and 107|
|New Hampshire||Both||Non-Judicial||59||24||No||New Hampshire Revised Statutes Title 38, Ch. 479|
|New Jersey||Judicial||270||None||10 days or 6 months depending on lender pursuing deficiency||New Jersey Permanent Statutes Title 2A:50-1|
|New Mexico||Judicial||180||None||9 months||New Mexico Statutes Annotated Articles 48-7-1 to 48-7-24 and Articles 48-10-1 to 48-10-21|
|New York||Judicial||445||None||No||New York State Consolidated Laws Article 13|
|North Carolina||Both||Non-Judicial||110||25||No||North Carolina General Statutes Ch. 45, Article 2B, Sections 21.36 and 21.38|
|North Dakota||Judicial||150||None||1 year||North Dakota Century Code Ch. 32-19-01|
|Ohio||Judicial||217||None||No||Ohio Revised Code Section 2329.08|
|Oklahoma||Both||Non-Judicial||186||None||No||Oklahoma Statutes Citationized Title 12, Ch. 12, Section 686|
|Oregon||Both||Non-Judicial||150||30||180 days||Oregon Chapter 88 and Chapter 304|
|Pennsylvania||Judicial||270||None||No||Pennsylvania 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. § 8103 and 231 Pa. Code Rule 3101|
|Rhode Island||Both||Non-Judicial||62||21||3 years in some circumstances||Rhode Island General Laws Ch. 34-27|
|South Carolina||Judicial||150||None||No||South Carolina Code of Laws Title 29, Ch. 3, Article 7|
|South Dakota||Both||Non-Judicial||150||23||180 days||South Dakota Codified Laws Ch. 21-47|
|Tennessee||Both||Non-Judicial||40-45||20-25||2 years||Tennessee Code Title 21, Ch. 1, Section 803|
|Texas||Both||Non-Judicial||27||None||No||Texas Statutes Title 5, Section 51|
|Utah||Both||Non-Judicial||142||None||Court discretion||Utah Code Title 38, Ch.1-16 and Title 57, Ch. 1|
|Vermont||Both||Judicial||95||None||Court discretion||Vermont Statutes Title 12, Ch. 163|
|Virginia||Both||Non-Judicial||45||14-28||No||Code of Virginia Title 8.9A Part 6 and Title 55, Ch. 4|
|Washington||Both||Non-Judicial||135||90||12-months for judicial.||Revised Code of Washington Title 61, Ch. 61-12|
|West Virginia||Both||Non-Judicial||60-90||30-60||No||West Virginia Code Articles 1 and 16 of Ch. 38|
|Wisconsin||Non-Judicial||290||None||6 or 12 months||Wisconsin Statutes and Annotations, Ch. 846|
|Wyoming||Both||Non-Judicial||60||25||3 months. Balance due plus 10%||Wyoming Statutes Title 34, Ch. 4|
State-By-State Foreclosure Laws. Source: Bills.com
Here are definitions to the terms used in the table above.
There are two types of foreclosure: Judicial and non-judicial.
- Judicial foreclosure means the foreclosure is a court-ordered legal process. The lender must file an action — a lawsuit — against the homeowner. This process is time consuming and subject to a sequence of events and calendar that consumes months or years.
- Non-judicial foreclosure is made possible by a legal document called a deed of trust. Many western states use deeds of trust in creating home loans. This system avoids a judicial foreclosure, and speeds the foreclosure process. Because the mortgage loan terms specify that default kicks off the sale process right away (without going through the court system), the lender can start the foreclosure process quickly. The borrower has a fixed period of time — which varies state by state — to either sell the home, or negotiate to solve the financial problem. If the consumer does not accomplish this on their own, the lender then can seize the property and auction the home to the highest bidder.
Some states, such as California, allow the lender to foreclose using either process, but in that state judicial foreclosure is rare.
Details vary by state, but lenders are required by state law to notify a delinquent homeowner of a pending foreclosure. Following that notice, the lender is required to wait before it can foreclose. For example, in California, a Notice of Default (NOD) is recorded in the county in which the property is located after a homeowner defaults on a mortgage. In California, an NOD must be filed 180 days before foreclosure.
Publication of Sale Period
Lenders are required to give notice before it auctions the home, and this notice period varies by state. In California, a Notice of Trustee’s Sale must be given at least 20 days before the date of sale in one public place and posted on the property.
Some states allow a former homeowner of a foreclosed property to a process called redemption. Redemption allows the former homeowner to retake possession of their property under certain circumstances. This is rare, as is intended to help homeowners who pass through a stretch of bad fortune, and then receive a windfall that allows them to pay off their former mortgage and take possession of their old home. Redemption is a right that a homeowner can assign to another party. Therefore, if you live in a redemption state and buy a foreclosed property, be sure to buy the redemption rights from the former homeowner.
Relevant State Laws
No table can summarize a state’s laws completely and accurately. Read your state’s statutes and case law to learn more about your rights and liabilities. Consult with a lawyer in your state who has real property or foreclosure experience if the state statute is unclear.
Bills.com takes reasonable care to provide accurate information, but errors and changes in law and interpretation occur. A lawyer in your state is the best source of information for foreclosure laws.