Charge-Off

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If an account is charged off do you still have to pay that debt?

Must you pay a debt a creditor places on charge off status?

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IN THIS ARTICLE:
  • An account charge-off does not remove your obligation to pay the debt.
  • Know your rights under the Fair Debt Collections Practices Act.
  • Never ignore a summons you receive.

Let us define charge-off and other terms before we get to the central issue in your question.

Charge-Off

A charge-off does not mean a debt is forgiven. When a debtor stops paying on a debt, a creditor will attempt to contact the debtor on the telephone and via the mail. When the number of days since the most recent payment reaches 120-180 days, the account is no longer considered current and the creditor is required by generally accepted accounting principles to "write-off" the debt. Writing-off a debt does not mean the debtor is no longer responsible for the debt, or that collection efforts cease.

The write-off date has almost nothing to do with the statute of limitations for debts. To learn more about statutes of limitations, read Which Statute of Limitations Applies to You.

National banks and federal savings associations must follow federal rules and guidelines for charge-offs. Both types of financial institutions must charge-off delinquent installment accounts at 120 days or five missed payments, and credit cards at “180 days past due after seven zero billings” (Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses (PDF), Comptroller of the Currency Administrator of National Banks).

At the write-off point, the creditor will transfer the debt to a late-accounts department, or has the option to sell the debt to a collection agent. The collection agent will buy the debt at a discount. However, the collection agent has the right to collect the entire balance due plus interest.

A charge-off / write-off does not change the legal status of the debt, or change the legal relationship between the creditor and the borrower. However, because the creditor classifies a charged-off debt differently from a current debt, the borrower can often negotiate a settlement for less than the present balance of the debt to after charge off. This would not have been possible when the the creditor considered the debt current.

Charge-Off & Debt Collection

A collection agent may use aggressive tactics to when contacting the debtor. The collection agent may threaten to call the debtor’s employer, file charges with the local sheriff, or say they will park a truck in front of the debtor’s house with a sign that reads "Bad Debt" on it. All of these tactics and many others are illegal under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA). Start here to learn the rights consumers have in collections under the FDCPA.

A creditor — a debt collector that owns a debt account is a creditor — has several legal means of collecting a debt. But before the creditor can start, the creditor must go to court to receive a judgment. A court (or in some states, a law firm for the plaintiff) is required to notify the debtor of the time and place of the hearing. This notice is called a "summons to appear" or a "summons and complaint." In some jurisdictions, a process server will present the summons personally. In others the sheriff’s deputy will pay a visit with the summons, and in others the notice will appear in the mail. Each jurisdiction has different civil procedure rules regarding proper service of notice. (See Served Summons and Complaint to learn more about this process.)

If you ever receive a summons you should do as it instructs! This is not just a social invitation that you can ignore. In the hearing, the judge will decide if the creditor should be allowed to collect the debt. If the debtor fails to appear, the judge has no choice but to decide on behalf of the creditor.

Therefore, if you receive a summons, the first thing you should do is contact the law firm representing the creditor. Open a negotiation to see if they are willing to settle the debt. If not, it would be wise to respond as indicated in the summons. If there is a hearing, attend it and present your side of the story to the judge. Use facts, tell the truth, dress appropriately, and show the court respect. The court may or may not decide in your favor, but at least you exercised your right to be heard.

The court may decide to grant a judgment to the creditor. A judgment is a declaration by a court that the creditor has the legal right to demand a wage garnishment, a levy on the debtor’s bank accounts, and a lien on the debtor’s property. Which of these tools the creditor will use depends on the circumstances. We discuss each of these remedies below.

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Wage Garnishment

The most common method used by judgment creditors to enforce judgments is wage garnishment, in which a judgment creditor would contact the debtor’s employer and require the employer to deduct a certain portion of the debtor’s wages each pay period and send the money to the creditor. However, several states, including Texas, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and South Carolina, do not allow wage garnishment for the enforcement of most judgments. In several other states, such as New Hampshire, wage garnishment is not the "preferred" method of judgment enforcement because, while possible, it is a tedious and time consuming process for creditors. In most states, creditors are allowed to garnish between 10% and 25% of your wages, with the percentage allowed being determined by each state. See Advice on Judgment Garnishment to learn more about wage garnishment.

Levy Bank Accounts

A levy means that the creditor has the right to take whatever money in a debtor’s account and apply the funds to the balance of the judgment. Again, the procedure for levying bank accounts, as well as what amount, if any, a debtor can claim as exempt from the levy, is governed by state law. Many states exempt certain amounts and certain types of funds from bank levies, so a debtor should review his or her state's laws to find if a bank account can be levied. See the Bills.com resource State Consumer Protection Laws and Exemptions for an overview of each state’s rules.

Lien

A lien is an encumbrance — a claim — on a property. For example, if the debtor owns a home, a creditor with a judgment has the right to place a lien on the home, meaning that if the debtor sells or refinance the home, the debtor will be required to pay the judgment out of the proceeds of the sale or refinance. If the amount of the judgment is more than the amount of equity in your home, then the lien may prevent the debtor from selling or refinancing until the debtor can pay off the judgment. Again, every state has its own rules about property liens, so debtors with a judgment against them who own property should review their state’s laws to learn creditor can and cannot do to enforce its judgment. See the Bills.com resource State Consumer Protection Laws and Exemptions for an overview of each state’s rules.

Debt Resolution

If you have a judgment against you, consult with an attorney licensed in your jurisdiction to learn how the judgment will affect you, based on your individual financial circumstances and your local rules.

It is not too late to contact the creditor or the law firm that either represented the creditor or bought the debt, and present them a settlement offer. Even with a judgment in place, the law firm must spend money to try to collect the debt. Getting a wage garnishment, levy, or lien takes time, and time to a law firm is money. The law firm may settle for a lump-sum payment. See "Debt Negotiation and Settlement Advice" before opening negotiations with a creditor. See "What Are My Debt Consolidation Options?" to learn more about your rights and options for resolving the debt.

Important! Get all settlement offers in writing before sending a check to the law firm or collection agent.

I hope this information helps you Find. Learn & Save.

Best,

Bill

Bills.com

73 Comments
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  • R
    Ron,
    Nov, 2020

    I had a charge off in 2013 on a home equity line of credit. The bank took me to court to try and collect the debt in 2016 and it was dismissed. Ii recently filed for bankruptcy and the creditor sent the written off debt with 2 years of interest added to it is this legal if the case was dismissed? Can they add interest on the loan for 2 years if it's not been heard in front of a judge?

    • 35x35
      Daniel,
      Nov, 2020

      Ron, are you doing the bankruptcy on your own or with an attorney? If an attorney, then ask him or her. If not, consider hiring one, or at least consulting with one. A lawyer needs to review what was dismissed. It isn't clear to me who dismissed it and on what grounds, as you later say it was not heard in front of a judge. Maybe you mean a judge dismissed it on some grounds before a full hearing, but I am not sure. The fact that a debt was charged-off doesn't mean you don't owe it. There may be a legal right to continue to charge interest, though many creditors choose not to.

      The type of bankruptcy you file, whether you are still in the home, the state in which you file and its exemptions from collection for property and its statute of limitations on debt all can make a difference. Be cautious and get solid legal advice.

    • 35x35
      Daniel,
      Nov, 2020

      Ron, are you doing the bankruptcy on your own or with an attorney? If an attorney, then ask him or her. If not, consider hiring one, or at least consulting with one. A lawyer needs to review what the judge wrote when dismissing the previous case.

      The type of bankruptcy you file, whether you are still in the home, the state in which you file and its exemptions from collection for property and its statute of limitations on debt all can make a difference. Be cautious and get solid legal advice.

  • S
    Shaniece,
    Nov, 2020
    Not sure if this was asked but I have a charge off from 2017 that still reports missed payments til this day. Is this allowed?
    • 35x35
      Daniel,
      Nov, 2020

      Shaniece, the missed payments will remain on the credit report for 7 years after the date of the first missed payment. As time passes, the effect on your credit score diminishes. If improving your score is an important goal, be sure you have active accounts that appear on your report that show you in good standing. 

  • K
    Keyoka,
    Oct, 2020

    What if my account was never late prior to the charge off? I paid in February and by March it was charged off. Even my credit report doesn’t show when my account went delinquent. It happened back in 2018. I still have the letter they sent me dated in February saying that they tried everything to get my account current and the payment in question was March 2018 which didn’t even come yet.

    • 35x35
      Daniel,
      Oct, 2020

      Keyoka, your account should not have gone into charge-off status the way you described it, if I understand you correctly. If you paid in February and were current, there is no way your account should be charged off. If you were in default for a number of months, yet sent in a payment each month that was smaller than required, then the account could be charged off. I think you need to look at your credit report, from all three bureaus, reviewing it with someone and then disputing whatever is inaccurate.

      Separate from the charge-off is the debt itself. Are they trying to collect from you for an upaid balance?

  • A
    Ada,
    Oct, 2020

    Can I request for a charge off to be removed from my credit report due to having the wrong opened date?

    • 35x35
      Daniel,
      Oct, 2020

      Ada, I believe that you are on stronger grounds to request that the inaccurately reported charge-off datebe reported accurately than you are to request to have it removed.

  • A
    Alison,
    Sep, 2020

    An account that was charged off in 2017 began posting derogatory remarks on my credit report on a monthly basis in January 2020. They stopped in June. Then, in August, they posted a late payment to another credit report. I disputed the late payment, but was unclear about the results.They have not contacted me about paying back the debt, not have they sold my account, not has there been any legal action. What are my next steps?

    • 35x35
      Daniel,
      Sep, 2020

      Alison, I am not a lawyer, so please do not consider any information I share to be legal advice.

      The first thing I would do is to find out if the debt has passed the statute of limitations on debt. This is about the collectibility of the debt, not about whether it can appear on your credit report. It seems most important to me to know if the creditor could rear its head and try to collect from you. If so, keeping a low profile seems best, if the debt is not tiny. The charged off account has a negative impact on your score from all the delinquencies that preceded the charge off. A late payment seems less of an issue that being compelled to repay the debt. 

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